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Ccuracy. In order to protect the confidentiality of the information, names were not included in the written questionnaires. The content validity of questionnaire was determined by a panel of five experts of different specializations. Experts' comments were taken into consideration in modification and revision. These experts generally agreed that the questionnaire was appropriately designed and dev
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To carry out the study. A verbal informed consent was obtained from each participant. The guidelines of the WHO including the importance of ensuring confidentiality and privacy were followed [13].Statistical analysisThis cross-sectional study was conducted in Erbil city between the 1st of October 2009 and the 30th of March 2011. A convenience sample of 800 Kurdish women aged 16?5 years attending t
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N expectedly cannot speak freely. To our knowledge, this study is the first survey in Erbil city to assess the past year IPV. Prevalence of past year IPV in this study (45.3 ) is similar to those reported in Baghdad (44 ) [14], and in Omdurman, Sudan (41.6 ) [26]. However, it is lower than that reported in Madina, Saudi Arabia (58.7 ) [12] and higher than that reported in China 26 [20] and Esfaha
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Ughly the same level. Table 3 gives the results of the longitudinal analysis in which the same women were followed from one survey to another. There were some differences by the number of follow-ups (how early or late the woman was recruited) as well as by compliance with the surveys (did she skip some of the surveys, group "Intermittent surveys" in Table 3). In the groups with only three or twoTa
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Uscript. RL commented the manuscript. PV participated in the designing of the analysis and commented the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript. Acknowledgement This study was partly financed by Academy of Finland grant 2007?010 (decision number 115088). We thank all women who participated in the trial, the trial staff at clinical centres, and the staff at the National Inst
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Slapping was still regarded as the commonest type and choking or burning was considered the least common. The lifetime prevalence of moderate physical violence was greater than that of severe physical violence (21 vs. 17.9 ). In contrast, the past year prevalence of severe physical violence was higher than moderate physical violence (8.9 , vs. 6.2 ). Details of lifetime and past year physical IPV
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Slapping was still regarded as the commonest type and choking or burning was considered the least common. The lifetime prevalence of moderate physical violence was greater than that of severe physical violence (21 vs. 17.9 ). In contrast, the past year prevalence of severe physical violence was higher than moderate physical violence (8.9 , vs. 6.2 ). Details of lifetime and past year physical IPV
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Ot always experienced in isolation. However, the interaction of symptoms, such as back and pelvic pain causing sleep disturbance or sleep disturbance causing fatigue are not well explored. Psychosocial variables also?2013 Foxcroft et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/l