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Zed SRBCs, only rare unopsonized SRBCs appeared bound to ZK1 cells; most cells did not have any unopsonized SRBCs attached. After binding, these unopsonized SRBCs were easily lysed away (Fig. 5A). Approximately 80 of ZK1 cells were positive for FcR-mediated phagocytosis of opsonized SRBCs (Fig. 5B). Similar results were seen in ZK2 and ZK6 clones (data not shown). Decreased binding and phagocytos
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F known clades. Although the majority of the outlier viruses found in our study were also URFs, they remained outliers after the removal of recombinant segments. It thus appears that these sequences represent viruses that are genuinely highly divergent and are possibly extant descendants of previously unknown early divergingTable 3 Inter and intraclade recombinantsSample ID BS02 BS09 BS11 BS13 BS2
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Pacity of latex beads similar to primary AMs deficient in MARCO and SR-AI/II. All three clones showed significantly decreased uptake of fluorescent latex beads compared to the wild type primary AMs (Fig. 6A). Observed differences in phagocytic capacity between these clones and parental primary AMs from MS-/- mice may reflect the heterogeneity seen in populations of primary alveolar macrophages.ZK1
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Ormation were obtained. RNA was extracted from plasma samples, reverse transcribed and PCR amplified as described previously [12] using subtype non-specific HIV-1 primers for HIV-1 full length gag [12] and nef [13] genes, and sequenced. Sequenced fragments were assembled using ChromasPro. Full length gag and nef sequences were generated and aligned using MUSCLE with manual editing in MEGA5, togeth
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Surface expression of the macrophage-associated differentiation Ags was assessed by direct immunofluorescence (thick lines). ZK1 cells were incubated with FITC-labeled anti-mouse F4/80 or FITC-labeled anti-mouse CD11b. Mouse IgG2a and IgG2b were used as isotype controls (light lines). Staining of cells with FITC-labeled anti-mouse Ig compared to unstained cells detects the of cells expressing su
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Ing time (mean generation time = mgt) was calculated according the formula: N = N02T/mgt. On the average, doubling time of ZK cell lines is between 12 h to 16 h in RPMI complete medium (Fig. 2). Like their parental primary AMs isolated from the MS-/- mice, all of the cell lines are adherent but trypsin-sensitive for passage. Morphology Light microscopic examination of Diff Quik, a modified Wright-
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Two samples for which only gag or nef was typed, these were classified as belonging to CRF11_cpx. Notably, despite subtypes B and C collectively accounting for approximately 75 infections worldwide [16], none of our sequences were classified as belonging to either of these clades. In 10/46 samples from which both nef and gag sequences were analysed, they were classified as belonging to different
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Osinic acid (PolyI) and dextran sulfate (DS,Page 3 of(page number not for citation purposes)Particle and Fibre Toxicology 2008, 5:http://www.particleandfibretoxicology.com/content/5/1/WTMS-/-ZKZKModified Wright staining of ZK1 and ZK2 cell lines compared with primary alveolar macrophages Figure 3 Modified Wright staining of ZK1 and ZK2 cell lines compared with primary alveolar macrophages. Primary