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Further define MARCO and SR-AI/II function, and may also be useful to identify other novel scavenger-type macrophage receptors and for additional studies of particle toxicology.BackgroundThe pulmonary alveolar macrophage (AM) plays an important role in defense of the lung [1-5]. Class A scavenger receptors (SRA) primarily expressed on the macro-phage (M? surface are critical for binding, uptake, a
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Ovided a very important tool to facilitate biological study of macrophages [20-23]. Several murine macrophage cell lines from bone marrow [24,25], spleen [26,27], fetal liver [28,29], and lung [30] have been successfully obtained by in vitro infection of primary cell cultures with a recombinant J2 retrovirus carrying the v-raf and v-myc oncogenes. In addition, investigation of the function of both
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Issecting the earliest evolutionary steps in the emergence of HIV-1M. Keywords: HIV-1 diversity, West central Africa, RDP3, Maximum likelihood, PHYMLFindings The Congo basin in west central Africa is thought to be the origin of HIV, where several cross-species transmission events from chimpanzees to humans occurred [1,2]. Cameroon, located in this region, has one of the most genetically diverse HI
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Ibution of HIV-1 in CameroonSample ID BS01 BS02 BS03 BS04 BS05 BS06 BS09 BS10 BS11 BS12 BS13 BS14 BS16 BS18 BS19 BS20 BS21 BS22 BS23 BS24 BS25 BS26 BS27 BS29 BS30 BS31 BS32 BS35 BS38 BS39 BS40 BS42 BS43 BS44 BS45 BS46 BS47 BS48 BS49 BS50 BS51 BS53 BS54 BS55 gag gene CRF02_AG A-like G G CRF02_AG CRF02_AG CRF02_AG A1 CRF02_AG G CRF02_AG CRF02_AG CRF02_AG NDc CRF02_AG NDc CRF02_AG CRF02_AG CRF02_AG C
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Cell lines from primary alveolar macrophages from MS-/- mice. Results: We used in vitro infection of the primary AMs with the J2 retrovirus carrying the v-raf and v-myc oncogenes. Following initial isolation in media supplemented with murine macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF), we subcloned three AM cell lines, designated ZK-1, ZK-2 and ZK-6. These cell lines grow well in RPMI-1640-10 FB
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Les 1, 2). The sequences clustered with different clades and circulating recombinant forms distributed throughout the phylogenetic trees (Table 2), consistent with the breadth of HIV-1 diversity previously described in Cameroon. CRF02_AG-like viruses dominated the clade distribution, infecting 50 of the 46 participants for which both genes were sequenced (Figure 2). Participants infected with vir
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Kh R, Awazi B, Hewlett I: Increased genetic diversity and intersubtype recombinants of HIV-1 in blood donors from urban Cameroon. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2007, 45:361?63. 6. Ndembi N, Abraha A, Pilch H, Ichimura H, Mbanya D, Kaptue L, Salata R, Arts EJ: Molecular characterization of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and HIV-2 in Yaounde, Cameroon: evidence of major drug resistance mu
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Ovided a very important tool to facilitate biological study of macrophages [20-23]. Several murine macrophage cell lines from bone marrow [24,25], spleen [26,27], fetal liver [28,29], and lung [30] have been successfully obtained by in vitro infection of primary cell cultures with a recombinant J2 retrovirus carrying the v-raf and v-myc oncogenes. In addition, investigation of the function of both