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Replicates following removal of recombinant sequence fragments by a blinded fully exploratory screen for recombination using RDP3. Black squares at the end of the branches represent the gag and nef sequences sampled from Cameroon in this study, while red squares represent intragene recombinant fragments in our samples. The gag tree was rooted using HIV-1 group N, O, P and SIV CPZ isolates, while t
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F known clades. Although the majority of the outlier viruses found in our study were also URFs, they remained outliers after the removal of recombinant segments. It thus appears that these sequences represent viruses that are genuinely highly divergent and are possibly extant descendants of previously unknown early divergingTable 3 Inter and intraclade recombinantsSample ID BS02 BS09 BS11 BS13 BS2
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Eshly isolated AMs from MS-/- mice, the cell lines exhibit decreased phagocytosis of unopsonized titanium dioxide (TiO2), fluorescent latex beads and bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus) compared with the primary AMs from wild type (WT) C57BL/6 mice. Conclusion: Our results indicated that three contiguous murine alveolar macrophage cell lines with MS-/- (ZK1, ZK2 and ZK6) were established successfully
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Hose residing on isolated branches outside of subtrees containing previously defined HIV-1 subtype or CRF lineages. Outlier sequences on the other hand were defined as those residing on basal branches of subtrees containing previously defined HIV-1 subtype or CRF lineages. Nucleotide sequences were deposited in GenBank [JX244899-JX244948 for gag and JX244949JX245003 for nef]. Clinical and demograp
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R macrophages which was derived from brochoalveolar lavage (BAL) obtained from MS-/- mice [31]. Immortalization was conducted by infection of the primary AMs from MS/- mice with a retrovirus J2. The immortalized AMs were cloned by limiting dilution method. Three of the clones, designated as ZK-1, ZK-2 and ZK-6 were chosen for further characterization of macrophage phenotype and phagocytic function
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L antibodies made also rapidly clear to the clinicians that a reliable predictive factor for outcome was, in fact, lacking [3-7]. The introduction of K-RAS mutational status analysis allowed a reliable selection of resistant patients (i.e. those with mutated K-RAS). However not all K-RAS wildtype cases were also responders to anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies. This observation made the need for furt
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Cias Zembe1, Eitel Mpoudi-Ngole2, Carolyn Williamson1,4 and Wendy A Burgers1*AbstractBackground: Cameroon, in west central Africa, has an extraordinary degree of HIV diversity, presenting a major challenge for the development of an effective HIV vaccine. Given the continuing need to closely monitor the emergence of new HIV variants in the country, we analyzed HIV-1 genetic diversity in 59 plasma s
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S from MARCO-/- and SR-AI/II-/- mice, they demonstrate marked decreased binding and phagocytosis of these particles compared to primary AMs from wild type mice (Fig. 6A and Fig. 7A and Fig. 7B). The results confirm that MARCO and SR-AI/II receptors on alveolar macrophages play critical roles in uptake of unopsonized environmental particles and bacteria. Moreover, the reduced, but still demonstrabl