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R-group comparisons were made using ANOVA with the post-hoc Bonferroni multiple comparisons test of significance. Significant P-values are indicated within the panels.suggesting that early life exposures may contribute to the pathogenesis of AD, perhaps through gene imprinting. Although chronic HFD feeding and limited NDEA exposure increased body weight and caused T2DM/peripheral insulin resistanc
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Xidative stress and neurodegeneration. Cerebellar protein homogenates were used to measure (A) GSK-3b; (B) phospho (p)-GSK-3b; (C) GFAP; (D) GAPDH; (E) HNE; (F) malondialdehyde, MDA; (G) Nitrotyrosine, N-TYR; or (H) b-Actin; by direct binding ELISA. Immunoreactivity was detected with HRP-conjugated secondary antibody and Amplex Red soluble fluorophor. Fluorescence light units (FLU) were measured (
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S such as diabetes mellitus [74], chronicTong et al. BMC Endocrine Disorders 2010, 10:4 http://www.biomedcentral.com/1472-6823/10/Page 3 ofalcoholism [75], or obesity with metabolic syndrome [45,46]. These systemic diseases share in common with primary central nervous system (CNS) degenerative diseases, impairments in cognition, and deficits in insulin and IGF signaling mechanisms, insulin/IGF res
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S, could result in cytoskeletal collapse and synaptic disconnection. Alternatively, the finding could reflect neuronal loss associated with neurodegeneration. The reduced levels of ChAT reflect deficits in acetylcholine homeostasis that contribute to cognitive impairment with neurodegeneration [101,102]. Correspondingly, in preliminary studies, we detected evidence of significant spatial learning
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Res of AD cerebellar atrophy include, reductions in Purkinje cell population, atrophy of the molecular and granule cell layers [68], increased amyloid deposition and gliosis in the cortex [69]; increased ubiquitin-immunoreactivity in senile plaques and degenerating neurites [70]; extensive abnormalities in dendritic spine density and synaptic structure in vestibulocerebellar, visual, and auditory
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Lyclonal and monoclonal antibodies and immunodetection reagents were purchased from Abcam (Cambridge, MA), Vector Laboratories (Burlingame, CA), Upstate (Billerica, MA), Chemicon (Temecula, CA), or Molecular Probes (Eugene, OR). The insulin ultra-sensitive ELISA kit was obtained from ALPCO Diagnostics (Salem, NH). Histochoice fixative was purchased from Amresco, Inc (Solon, OH). Antibodies to tumo